What are the types of beverage machinery?
Different beverage production processes require different beverage machinery. The following describes several general and commonly used machinery and equipment in the beverage production process.
Water treatment plant
Water is the largest raw material used in soft drink production, and the quality of water has a great impact on the quality of soft drink. Therefore, water must be treated to meet process requirements. Water treatment equipment is usually divided into three categories according to its function: water filtration equipment, water softening equipment and water disinfection and sterilization equipment.
(1) Water filtration equipment
(1) sand filter equipment (multi-medium filter equipment) sand filter (multi-medium filter) is a mechanical filter equipment with layered anthracite, sand, fine garnet or other materials as the bed. The principle is to filter the particles of different particle sizes in the water according to the depth. The larger particles are removed at the top and the smaller particles are removed at the depth of the filter medium. Thus, the water quality can reach the standard after crude filtration, reduce the SDI (sludge density index) value of water, and meet the water quality requirements of deep purification
(2) activated carbon filter activated carbon adsorption, there is a certain turbidity removal, the main structure and layout of activated carbon filter and sand filter similar. Therefore, activated carbon adsorption is also known as activated carbon filtration. Activated carbon filtration is mainly used for organic impurities and colloidal particles in water, but also for dechlorination. Activated carbon filter
(3) sand core rod filter sand core rod filter is also known as sand filter rod filter, in the water treatment equipment has been established products. Mainly applicable to the treatment of water with less water, water containing only organic matter, bacteria and other impurities.
(4) Microporous filter Microporous filtration is a new membrane separation technology. It can filter filtrate, gas particles above 0.01μm and bacteria. It is characterized by high capture capacity, large filtration area, long service life, high filtration accuracy, low resistance, high mechanical strength, no stripping phenomenon, strong acid and base resistance, easy to use. The filter can remove most of the particles, so it is widely used in fine filtration and bactericidal process of microporous membrane filter
(2) Water softening equipment
(1) Ion exchanger Ion exchanger is a device commonly used in water treatment. It can soften or desalt water by selecting a certain process. It mainly uses some ion exchangers to temporarily fix the unwanted ions in the raw water, so that the content of these ions in the water is reduced to the required degree. The ions held by the exchangers are released in the regenerated liquid and the exchangers can be reused. That is to say, its essence is the physical and chemical reaction between an insoluble electrolyte (resin) and another electrolyte in the solution, that is, the exchange reaction between exchangeable ions on the resin and other homogenous ions in the solution.
(2) Electrodialysis device Electrodialysis in industry as a new technology of separation, concentration, purification and recovery process, widely used in chemical, pharmaceutical, food and other industries. The application in the food industry is mainly focused on the purification of soda water and beer water, which is used to soften water (desalinate) in soft drink factories. Electrodialysis technology is through the selective transmission and good conductivity of the ion exchange membrane, under the action of the external direct current electric field, according to the principle of opposites attract and homosexuals repel, so that the raw water, the positive ion exchange membrane and cation exchange membrane respectively through a technology to achieve purification.
(3) Reverse osmosis equipment Reverse osmosis is the membrane technology with the largest application scale and the most mature technology. Its application accounts for about half of the whole field of membrane separation, which is the biggest breakthrough in the development of membrane technology. Reverse osmosis is separated by the solvent in the reverse osmosis membrane solution. Reverse osmosis application from seawater desalination, hard water softening and other development to the concentration of vitamins, antibiotics, hormones, bacteria, virus separation and juice, milk, coffee concentration and many other aspects, the application is very wide. The advantages of reverse osmosis equipment are continuous operation and stable water quality. No need for acid and base regeneration; Will not stop due to regeneration; Save recoil and cleaning water; To produce ultra-pure water with high yield (yield can be as high as 95%); Recycled sewage does not require water treatment facilities; Low operation and maintenance costs; Simple installation and low cost.
The key to producing pure water in reverse osmosis facilities is two things: a selective membrane, which we call a semi-permeable membrane, and a certain pressure. Simply put, there are many holes on the reverse osmosis semi-permeable membrane, and the size of these holes is equivalent to the size of water molecules. Because bacteria, viruses, most organic pollutants and hydration ions are much larger than water molecules, they can not be separated from the water phase of the reverse osmosis semi-permeable membrane through the reverse osmosis membrane. Among the many impurities in water, dissolved tears are the most difficult to remove. Therefore, the water purification effect of reverse osmosis is often determined by the desalinization rate. The desalinization rate of reverse osmosis is mainly determined by the selectivity of reverse osmosis semi-permeable membrane. At present, highly selective reverse osmosis membrane elements can be as high as 99.7% of salt removal.
In the process of reverse osmosis separation, a preferential adsorption layer must be formed at the membrane-solution interface first. The degree of preferential adsorption depends on the chemical properties of the solution and the chemical properties of the membrane surface. As long as the appropriate membrane material is selected and the microporous structure and operating conditions of the membrane surface are simply changed, reverse osmosis technology can be applied to solute separation with any degree of separation.
Although the ultrafiltration technology started late in China, it develops very rapidly. With the continuous promotion of this technology and the continuous improvement of people’s understanding of it, the beverage production industry will certainly get more benefits from it.
Ultrafiltration membrane equipment has several different forms in industrial applications, such as plate, tube, spiral plate and hollow fiber. At present, most of the domestic applications are plate and tube, especially hollow fiber membrane (hollow fiber membrane) has been widely used in water treatment.
Hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane is the most mature and advanced form of ultrafiltration technology. This film is developed on the basis of flat film with spatial geometry of the film, so that the unit volume of film equipment does not rely on the extremely thin semi-permeable film and has a great membrane permeability. The wall of hollow fiber tube is covered with micropores, and the pore size can be expressed by the relative molecular weight of the intercepted material, which can reach thousands to hundreds of thousands. Due to the use of hollow cylindrical configuration, the production capacity of unit volume membrane permeation equipment is greatly improved. Raw water flows under pressure outside the hollow fiber or in the inner cavity, forming the external pressure type and the internal pressure type respectively. Ultrafiltration is a dynamic filtration process, the trapped substance can be eliminated with the concentration, will not clog the membrane surface, and can run continuously for a long time. It can be proved that in the application of ultrafiltration, using a cylindrical beam with a reasonable size of small diameter hollow fiber membrane, the amount of liquid transmission will be equivalent to ten square meters of ultra-thin flat film income.
The hollow fiber is a thin membrane tube, the inner wall is a membrane layer, the membrane layer is combined with the sponge type outer wall, the outer wall has a thick hole, the inner layer plays the role of ultrafiltration separation. The size of the intimal pore determines the size of the blocked substance in the tube. The hollow fiber has an inner meridian of about 200μm, is made of inert nonionic polymer, has a unique anisotropic (epidermal) structure, and has a significantly high flow rate. Its characteristics are: (1) the unit volume of the device in the film area is large; (2) Thin membrane wall, liquid transmission speed is fast; ③ Because the geometry of hollow fiber has certain pressure resistance, it has high strength.
(3) Water sterilization and disinfection equipment
(1) Ozone sterilizer The so-called ozone sterilizer is to use the strong oxidation of ozone to achieve the purpose of sterilization. Ozone is a strong oxidant, its bactericidal effect is 15 ~ 30 times higher than chlorine, in a certain concentration of 5 ~ 10min, ozone on a variety of fungi can reach the degree of sterilization. It has been widely used in water disinfection treatment abroad to deodorize, remove color, etc., domestic in the production of mineral water, purified water is also widely used in sterilization.
(2) Ultraviolet sterilizer When microorganisms are irradiated by ultraviolet light, the proteins and nucleic acids of microorganisms absorb the ultraviolet spectrum energy, resulting in protein denaturation and microbial death. Ultraviolet light has a certain penetration of clean and transparent water, so it can disinfect the water. Ultraviolet sterilization can not change the physical and chemical properties of water, sterilization speed, high efficiency, no odor, so it is widely used.
Sterilization is an important link in beverage processing. Beverage sterilization is different from medical and biological sterilization. Beverage sterilization has two meanings: one is to kill the pathogenic bacteria and spoilage bacteria polluted in the beverage, destroy the enzymes in the food and make the beverage in a specific environment, such as closed bottles, cans or other packaging containers, have a certain storage period; The other is to protect the nutrition and flavor of the beverage as much as possible in the process of sterilization. Therefore, the sterilized beverage is commercial sterile.
The methods of beverage sterilization include physical sterilization and chemical sterilization. Chemical sterilization method uses hydrogen peroxide, ethylene oxide, sodium hypochlorite and other fungicides. Due to the influence of chemical residue, modern food sterilization tends to physical sterilization. Physical sterilization is divided into thermal sterilization and cold sterilization. Thermal sterilization is divided into thermal sterilization method, dry heat sterilization method, microwave sterilization method and far infrared heating sterilization method. Cold sterilization is divided into ultraviolet radiation sterilization, ionizing radiation sterilization and freezing sterilization. There are pasteurization method, high temperature and short time sterilization method and ultra high temperature instantaneous sterilization method. The so-called pasteurization is the process of long-term sterilization at low temperature. The temperature of sterilization is below 100℃ and the holding time is 30 minutes. High temperature and short time sterilization (HTST), sterilization temperature is generally less than 100℃, such as milk HTST sterilization temperature of 85℃, keep more than 15s. Ultra high temperature instantaneous sterilization (UHT), sterilization temperature above 120℃, only a few seconds. HTST and UHT sterilization methods are not only efficient, but also better than other sterilization methods in terms of food structure and appearance, nutrition and flavor preservation. According to the above sterilization methods, there are many kinds of beverage sterilization equipment developed accordingly, which can be classified into the following three types according to the forms of treated materials:
(1) Sterilization equipment for fluid beverage Fluid beverage refers to unpackaged dairy, juice and other materials. The sterilization equipment dealing with this kind of material is divided into direct type and indirect type. Direct type is used to spray neatly into the material for sterilization. The indirect type is to use the plate and tube heat exchanger to carry on the heat exchange of the beverage for sterilization.
(2) Sterilization equipment for canned beverages, canned beverages, bottled beverages and other beverages with packaging containers. Sterilization equipment for handling such materials can be divided into atmospheric pressure sterilization equipment and pressurized sterilization equipment according to different sterilization temperatures. The sterilization temperature of atmospheric pressure sterilization equipment is below 100℃, which is used for sterilization of beverage products with pH value less than 4.5. Canning sterilization equipment designed with pasteurization principle belongs to this category. Pressure sterilization equipment is generally carried out in closed equipment, the pressure is greater than 0.1MPa, the temperature is commonly used about 120℃. Atmospheric pressure and pressure sterilization equipment in operation can also be divided into intermittent and continuous. According to the different heat sources used for sterilization equipment, it can be divided into direct steam heating sterilization equipment, water heating sterilization equipment, flame continuous sterilization machine, etc.
(3) The use of electromagnetic wave physical sterilization equipment This kind of sterilization equipment is the use of microwave, far infrared, ultraviolet and other physical radiation heating sterilization, is a promising development of sterilization equipment.
Bottle washing machine
CP-12 bottle punching machine is a kind of rotary bottle punching machine with domestic advanced level which is innovatively designed based on the introduction, digestion and absorption of domestic and foreign advanced technology. This machine is suitable for bottled drinks, mineral water, cola and other liquid filling production, cleaning plastic bottles, can be provided to large and medium-sized manufacturers, can also be used on a single machine. This machine has the following characteristics: (1) This machine is a special equipment for cleaning various specifications of plastic bottles; (2) Compact equipment structure, perfect control system, easy operation and maintenance; (3) The cleaning process is reasonable. Spray type principle is adopted to rinse the inside and outside of the bottle, and the residual water in the bottle is automatically drained. After cleaning, the empty bottle meets the health requirements; (4) Change the shape of the bottle, just replace the star wheel and guide plate can be realized, easy to operate automatic bottle washing machine
CP-32 bottle flushing machine is a semi-automatic external shower bottle flushing machine, suitable for all kinds of bottle shapes and materials of old and new bottles washing. The main features of the machine are: spray the outer wall of the bottle, and wash the inner wall twice continuously to ensure the washing effect; The other main parts are made of stainless steel or wear-resistant copper alloy to prevent corrosion; Using tap water atmospheric pressure work, strong adaptability. This machine has reasonable structure, simple operation, convenient maintenance, widely used in wine, beverage, soy sauce, vinegar, liquid medicine and other manufacturers.
CIP cleaning system
CIP is short for cleanin place or In-place cleaning. It is defined as a method to clean the contact surface with food by using high temperature and high concentration cleaning solution without disassembling or moving the device.
Therefore, CIP is designed to scrub, clean, and sterilize without having to disassemble the machinery and pipes at all. In the cleaning process and can reasonably deal with the washing, cleaning, sterilization and economy, energy saving and other relations, is an optimization of cleaning management technology. CIP device is suitable for multi-pipe sterilization mechanical devices with direct contact with fluid materials, such as fruit juice drinks, dairy products, concentrated fruit juice, soybean milk, etc. CIP cleaning is a common method used by beverage manufacturers to ensure product quality. The purpose of cleaning is to clear the equipment and pipe wall residues, to ensure that the health indicators. In general, a clean must be carried out for continuous use of 6 ~ 8h. In special cases, when the production capacity is found to be significantly reduced, it should be cleaned immediately. Double row intermittent punching machine
The purpose of cleaning is to remove the dirt adhering to the machinery to prevent the growth of microorganisms in it. To remove dirt, the cleaning system must be able to provide the cleaning capacity needed to overcome the contamination. There are three sources of cleaning capacity, namely, the motion energy generated from the flow of cleaning fluid, the chemical energy generated from the detergent, and the heat energy in the cleaning fluid. These three abilities are complementary. At the same time, the ability factor is related to the time factor. In the same state, the longer the washing time, the better the washing effect.
CIP has the following advantages: (1) It can maintain a certain cleaning effect to improve product safety; (2) Save operation time and improve efficiency, save labor and ensure operation safety, save cleaning water and steam; (3) Stable health level, saving the amount of cleaning agent; (4) Production equipment can be large-scale, high level of automation; (5) Increase the durable life of production equipment.